A note on proper names: Many of the proper names from the 1830 translation have been changed to their Hebraic versions in this edition. Some are noted here, along with their original 1830 spellings or, in cases where the name appears in the King James Version of the Bible, with their kjv spellings. Personal names are also given in their most likely Hebrew spelling.

    Achaz (אחז) Ahaz in the kjv

    Adon Lord, Master

    Adon Yeshua The Lord Yeshua

    Adon Yeshua HaMashiach Lord Yeshua the Messiah

    Adonai Lord (used only in referring to deity)

    Adonai yhwh Lord God

    Adonai yhwh Tzva’ot Lord God Almighty or Lord God of Hosts

    Aharon (אהרון) Aaron in the kjv

    Alef The first letter of the Hebrew alphabet (א); given as alpha in Greek translations

    Alma (עלמא) The Aramaic equivalent of Elam

    Ameni (אמני) Omni in the 1830 translation

    Avinodam (אבינודעם) Abinadom in the 1830 translation

    Avinodi (אבינודי) My father was a wanderer/nomad; Abinadi in the 1830 translation

    Avraham (אברהם) Abraham in the kjv

    Bavel Babel or Babylon

    Beit Avarah Bethabara in the kjv

    Besorah (בשורה Strong’s 1309) good tidings, good news; gospel in the 1830 translation

    Binyamin (בנימן) Benjamin in the 1830 translation

    Brass Plates See Plates of Brass in Appendix B.

    Chamesh (חמש) Chemish in the 1830 translation

    Cheleman (חלמן) Helaman in the 1830 translation

    Echad The number one. Implies alike, together, united.

    Efrayim (אפרים) Ephraim in the kjv

    El, Eloah God in the singular

    El Elyon Most High God

    El Olam Everlasting God

    El Shaddai God Almighty, literally “God, the double breasted.” Identified in the Zohar with the Shekinah (Zohar 1 95a), the feminine aspect of Elohim.

    Eliyahu (אליהו) Elijah in the kjv

    Elohim God (technically plural, but normally matched with singular verbs and adjectives)

    Elohe Kedem Eternal God

    Elyon Most High

    Enosh (אנוש) Enos in the 1830 translation

    ’Eter (עתר) Ether in the 1830 translation

    Genizah Treasury; also a repository for sacred records.

    Get A divorce document that a husband must give to a wife to make a divorce valid.

    Gehinnom Hell, the place of the post-resurrection afterlife for the unrighteous. Gehinnom was a valley just outside of Jerusalem (Josh. 15:8; 18:16; Neh. 11:30; Jer. 19:2, 6) in which pagans had once sacrificed their own children to Ba’al and Molech (2 Kings 23:10; 2 Chron. 28:3; 33:6; Jer. 7:31-32; 19:2, 6; 32:35). In the first century, all of the refuse of the city was cast into this valley and burned there. In the Mishnah and Talmud, it is contrasted with the Garden of Eden, the World to Come, and Heaven; it is the final afterlife of the wicked (m.Avot 5:19 – 20; m.Eduyot 2:10; b.Berakhot 28a). According to the Talmud, Gehinnom is huge (b.Pesahim 94a) and has seven compartments (b.Sotah 19b). There is some debate in the Rabbinic literature as to whether souls are punished eternally in Gehinnom. The Targum Jonathan to Isaiah 66:24 describes it as a place where “their souls shall not die.” Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai describes it as a place where one is imprisoned “forever” with an “everlasting death” (b.Ber. 28b), while Rabbi Akiva taught punishment in Gehinnom was limited to twelve months (m.Eduyot 2:10).

    Giv’at-Sh’ul Gibeah of Saul in the kjv

    Goy, Goyim (singular/plural) Gentile(s); literally: nation(s). Used in this text to refer to those who are not of the House of Israel or who have lost or forgotten their connection to the House of Israel.

    HaElyon The Most High

    HaKodesh The Holy One

    HaMashiach The Messiah; literally, “the anointed one.”

    HaSatan The Devil, the Adversary, Satan

    Havah (חוה) Eve in the kjv; the mother of the human family

    Hellel Day star; also the angelic name of HaSatan, Lucifer in the kjv

    Hevel (הבל) Abel in the kjv

    Horev Horeb

    Isra’el Israel; literally, “prevails with God” or “a man seeing God”

    Isra’elite Israelite

    Kayin (קין) Cain in the kjv; he murdered his brother Hevel

    Kadosh, K’doshim (singular/plural); One who is holy or set apart to yhwh; saint/saints in the kjv

    Keruvim Cherubim; angelic beings

    Kohen, Kohanim Priest, priests

    Kohen HaGadol High Priest

    Kumorah A hill where sacred records were hidden. The name may come from the contraction KumRamah (to rise to a height). The Yeredites called the same hill Ramah (high).

    Lashon Hara Wicked speech, derogatory speech about another person; babblings in the 1830 translation.

    Lavan (לבן) Laban in the 1830 translation

    Lechi (לחי) Lehi in the 1830 translation

    Liahona A ball or director that gave the Nefites divine direction in their journey. Liahona (ליהונא) may come from the root lawah לוה (Strong’s 3867), “to join, to bind around, to wreathe,” from which come the related Hebrew words liah ליה (Strong’s 3914), “a wreath,” and lon לון (Strong’s 3885), “to abide, to dwell, to remain or continue.” The word “Liahona” combines these words to describe a device that joins the traveling party to God, a ball with two spindles that would wreathe around and direct Lechi and his party where and when to abide, dwell, remain, or continue.

    L’mu’el (למואל) Lemuel in the 1830 translation

    L’mu’elite Lemuelite in the 1830 translation

    L’vanon Lebanon

    Mal’akhi (מלאכי) Malachi in the kjv

    Malki-Tzedek (מלכיצדק) Melchizedek in the kjv

    Mashiach Messiah; literally, “anointed one”

    Mattani (מתני) “My gift”; Mathoni in the 1830 translation

    Mattanihah (מתניהה) Mathonihah in the 1830 translation

    Matzah Unleavened bread, commonly used at Passover

    Milo HaGoyim “Fulness of the Gentiles,” defined in Rom. 11:25 as the time when blindness ends for Israel, and the natural branches are grafted back into their own olive tree (Rom. 11:11-24). The same Hebrew phrase is commonly translated “multitude of nations” in Gen. 48:19, where Ephraim is blessed to become a “multitude of nations.”

    Miryam (מרים) Mary in the kjv

    Mitzvah, Mitzvot (singular/plural) Commandment(s)

    M’nasheh (מנשה) Manasseh in the kjv

    Moshe (משה) Moses in the kjv

    Moshiyah (מושעיה) Mosiah in the 1830 translation

    M’raman (מרמן) Mormon in the 1830 translation

    M’roni (מרני) Moroni in the 1830 translation

    Naftali (נפתלי) Naphtali in the kjv

    Natzrat (נצרת) Nazareth in the kjv

    Nefi The name “Nefi” deserves some special attention. At the time Nefi lived, Egyptian culture held a great deal of influence in Israel, especially among the upper class, to which Lechi (Nefi’s father) appears to have belonged. The name Nefi may come from the Egyptian word “nefi,” which Budge defines as “to breathe, to blow at, to give breath to, i.e. to set free (a prisoner) Heb. נפח” (An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, E. A. Wallis Budge; Dover Publications, Inc.; Vol. I, p. 369). The Hebrew word naphach (נפח Strong’s 5301) means to “to blow upon, to breathe.” The Egyptian word “nefi” is clearly related to “naphach” and, given the textual origin of this work, the text is entirely accurate to name Nefi using an Egyptian word with a related Hebrew root. This same Hebrew root appears in Gen. 2:7 and Ezek. 37:9, both in reference to moving the spirit or breath of life.

    Nefihah (נפיהה) Nephihah in the 1830 translation

    Nefite Nephite in the 1830 translation

    Ne’um (נאם) Neum in the 1830 translation

    Noach (נח) Noah in the kjv, the patriarch who built the ark; not to be confused with the wicked king Noah in this text, whose name has been left with its 1830 spelling.

    Ofir (אופיר) Ophir in the kjv

    Olam World, age, forever

    ’Orev Oreb in the kjv

    Pardes Paradise, often a synonym for the Garden of Eden. A compartment in She’ol where the righteous await the resurrection; additionally, a metonym for a mystical experience. PaRDeS is also an acronym in Hebrew for the four levels of understanding the Scriptures: Pashat (plain, literal, simple); Remez (hinted, implied); Drash (allegorical, homiletical); and Sod (hidden, secret, mystical).

    Patros Pathros in the kjv

    Pekach (פקח) Pekah in the kjv

    Pesach A major holiday commemorating the liberation of Israel from Egyptian captivity. One of three holidays that anciently required a pilgramage to the temple at Jerusalem. It is observed for seven (or eight) days and begins with the Seder meal on the evening of the 15th of Nisan. Also called Passover.

    Plates of Brass See Plates of Brass in Appendix B

    P’leshet Palestina in the kjv

    P’lishti/P’lishtim Philistine/Philistines in the kjv

    Rahav (רחב) Rahab in the kjv

    Remalyah (רמליהו) Remaliah in the kjv

    Retzin (רצין) Rezin in the kjv

    Rosh Hashanah “The Head of the Year,” or the Jewish New Year. The biblical name for this holiday is Yom Teruah, literally “day of shouting or blasting,” commonly translated “Feast of Trumpets.”

    Ruach This Hebrew term means spirit, wind, or breath. When applied to deity, it refers to the influence, glory, and power exerted by God on man. When applied to man, it refers to the inner essence of the being, as opposed to the physical body. The presence of the ruach gives life to the body. In Judaism, Nefesh (soul) is the animating life force, Ruach (spirit) is the seat of the emotions and moral capacity, and Neshama is the rational mind.

    Ruach Elohim Spirit of God

    Ruach HaKodesh Holy Spirit, Holy Ghost. Because the 1830 text makes some distinction between these terms, “Holy Ghost” has been translated Ruach HaKodesh, while “Holy Spirit” has been left as original.

    Saryah (שריה) “My prince is Yah”; Sariah in the 1830 translation

    Seder A ritual meal observed at Passover (Pesach), at which the story of Israel’s liberation from Egyptian bondage is commemorated and retold.

    Shalem Salem in the kjv

    Shalom Peace, harmony, wholeness, completeness, prosperity, welfare, and tranquility. Also used as a greeting or goodbye.

    She’ol Hell, the place of the pre-resurrection afterlife. Within She’ol is a compartment called Pardes, where the righteous await their resurrection, while the wicked await in She’ol proper. The Encyclopedia Judaica states, “Several names are given to the abode of the dead, the most common being She’ol — always feminine and without the definite article — a sign of proper nouns. The term does not occur in other Semitic languages, except as a loan word from Hebrew She’ol, and its etymology is obscure” (Encyclopedia Judaica; article “Netherworld” p. 996).

    Shet (שת) Seth in the kjv

    Shin’ar Shinar in the kjv

    Shofar A ram’s-horn trumpet, traditionally sounded in battle and at Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.

    Sh’mu’el (שמואל) Samuel in the kjv

    S’mikhah Authority, ordination; from a word meaning “laying on of hands.”

    Sukkah Booth A tabernacle, a temporary dwelling hut topped with branches, constructed for use during the week-long Feast of Sukkot (sometimes called the Feast of Tabernacles).

    Sukkot The Feast of Tabernacles, a biblical Feast that begins on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei. During the time of the Jerusalem Temple, it was one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals on which the Israelites were commanded to make a pilgrimage to the Temple.

    Talmid, Talmidim (singular/plural) A student or disciple

    Tamé Ritually impure

    Tav (ת) The last letter of the Hebrew alphabet; “Omega” in translations from Greek.

    Torah The divine Law; literally, “guidance, instruction.”

    Tu B’Av’ The 15th day of Av. An ancient minor Jewish festival marking the beginning of the grape harvest. It is similar in romantic character with Valentine’s Day and is traditionally celebrated with maidens dancing. Rabbi Simeon ben Gamliel said, “There never were in Israel greater days of joy than the Fifteenth of Av and the Day of Atonement...what happened on the fifteenth of Av?...Rabbi Joseph said in the name of Rabbi Nahman: ‘It is the day on which the tribe of Benjamin was permitted to re-enter the congregation [of Israel], as it is said, Now the men of Israel had sworn in Mizpah, saying: There shall not any of us give his daughter unto Benjamin to wife. (Judg. 21:1) From what was their exposition?’ Rab said: ‘From the phrase “any of us” which was interpreted to mean, “but not from any of our children” ’ (b.Taanit 30b).”

    Tum’ah Ritual uncleanness

    Tzedakah Alms, charitable giving; one’s duty to the needy

    Tzidkiyahu (צדקיהו) Zedekiah in the kjv

    Tzidon Sidon in the kjv

    Tziyon Zion in the kjv

    Tz’lav, Tz’livot (singular/plural) A wooden instrument of execution by hanging or crucifixion; “cross” in the 1830 translation.

    Tzuram (צורעם) Zoram in the 1830 translation, possibly meaning “Rock of the Nation.” Tzur was used as a metaphor for Elohim as protector of Isra’el (Deut. 32:37; Isa. 30:29; Ps. 18:3, 32, 47).

    Tzuramite Zoramite in the 1830 translation

    Tzva’ot Hosts in kjv; also “armies”

    Uziyahu (עזיהו) Uzziah in the kjv

    Ya, Yah Abbreviation of yhwh

    Ya’akov (יעקב) Jacob in the kjv

    Ya’akovite Jacobite in the 1830 translation

    Yah yhwh The Lord Jehovah in the kjv

    Yahram (יהרם) Jarom in the 1830 translation

    Yarden Jordan in the kjv

    Yered (ירד) Jared in the kjv

    Yeredite Jaredite in the 1830 translation

    Yerushalayim Jerusalem in the kjv

    Yesha’yahu (ישעיהו) Isaiah in the kjv

    Yeshua A Greek form of this name is often recognized as Jesus, but the informed understand that the current “Christian” Jesus has become nothing more than a caricature and a mockery of the Jew named Yeshua to whom this book is dedicated.

    Yeshua HaMashiach (ישוע המשיח) Literally, “Yeshua the anointed.” Translated in the kjv as Jesus Christ, though that Greek-based name has become associated with a false portrayal of the Mashiach. See “Yeshua” above.

    Y’hoshua (יהושוע) Joshua in the kjv

    Y’hudah (יהודה) Judea, Judah in the kjv

    Y’hudi/Y’hudim Jew/Jews in the kjv

    yhwh The personal name of the Creator, written without vowels. Also translated as “Lord” or “the Lord.”

    yhwh Elohim Omnipotent Lord God Omnipotent

    yhwh Omnipotent The Lord Omnipotent

    yhwh our Elohim The Lord our God

    yhwh their Elohim The Lord their God

    yhwh Tzva’ot Lord of Hosts

    yhwh your Elohim The Lord your God

    Yirmeyahu (ירמיהו) Jeremiah in the kjv

    Yirshon Jershon in the 1830 translation

    Yishai (ישי) Jesse in the kjv

    Yishma’el (ישמעאל) Ishmael in the kjv

    Yishma’elite Ishmaelite in the 1830 translation

    Yitz’chak (יצחק) Isaac in the kjv

    Yochanan (יוחנן) John in the kjv

    Yom Kippur The Day of Atonement. A biblical holy day observed as a day of fasting and intensive prayer.

    Yonah (יונה) Jonas in the 1830 translation

    Yosef (יוסף) Joseph in the kjv

    Yosef ben Yosef Literally, “Joseph, son of Joseph.” In this text, the name refers to Joseph Smith, Jr., the original translator of the text into English. His translation is referred to herein as the 1830 translation. See Appendices B and F for more information.

    Yosefite Josephite in the 1830 translation

    Yosh (יוש) Josh in the 1830 translation

    Yotam (יותם) Jotham in the kjv

    Yud (י) The smallest Hebrew letter

    Y’verekhyahu (יברכיהו) Jeberechiah in the kjv

    Zerach’mla (זרעחמלא) Zarahemla in the 1830 translation; possibly from the Aramaic roots Zera (seed/dispersed) and Ch’mla (gathered in).

    Z’kharyahu (זכריהו) Zechariah in the kjv